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Lika Liku Kedelai

Readtimes.id – Jangan heran jika kian hari tempe goreng yang anda beli pinggir jalan semakin tipis saja. Sandaiga Uno pernah berkelakar tempe saat ini sudah setipis kartu ATM. Itu karena kedelai, bahan baku tempe, terus naik meski bertahap. Harga kedelai impor di Kabupaten Kudus, Jawa Tengah, per hari Selasa (16/2/2021) naik lagi menjadi 9.800 rupiah yang awalnya 9.750 rupiah per kilogram.

Kenaikannya memang kelihatan kecil, hanya 50 rupiah. Tapi pengaruhnya ke biaya produksi tempe di Indonesia begitu besar. Di Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat, harga kedelai sudah tembus 10.300 per kilogram. Harga itu telah naik bertahap sejak Senin (7/2/2021) pekan lalu, yang awalnya 800 ribu rupiah per 100 kilogram, naik menjadi 900 ribu, naik lagi 980 ribu, hingga ke harga sekarang 1,03 juta per 100 kilogram.

Berapa sebenarnya harga normalnya? Awalnya hanya 6.500 rupiah per kilogram, sekarang sudah hampir 10 ribu. Demikian kata Manajer Primer Koperasi Tahu Tempe Indonesia Kudus, Amar Ma’ruf.

Data BPS menunjukkan volume impor kedelai di 5 tahun terakhir bergerak fluktuatif. Tahun 2015 sebanyak 2.26 juta ton, tahun 2016 2.26 juta ton, tahun 2017 2.672 juta ton, tahun 2018 2.59 juta ton, tahun 2019 2.67 juta ton, dan tahun 2020 (data November 2020) 2.31 juta ton. Di tahun 2021 Kementerian Pertanian memperkirakan impor kedelai sebanyak 2.6 juta ton untuk memenuhi kebutuhan konsumsi tahu tempe.

Impor kedelai mulai menggila di atas angka 2 juta ton sejak pemerintah membebaskan bea masuk kedelai pada 2013, yang tertuang dalam Peraturan Menteri Keuangan (PMK) Nomor 133 Tahun 2013, yang berlaku sejak 8 Oktober 2013. Impor kedelai di bawah 2 juta ton terakhir terjadi di tahun 2014 yakni 1.96 juta ton.

Impor kedelai adalah hal wajar, untuk menghindari kelangkaan kedelai dalam negeri. Tapi, ketergantungan impor sangat beresiko jika harga kedelai dunia terus naik. Kedelai mayoritas diimpor dari Amerika Serikat, Kanada, Malaysia, Argentina, hingga Brasil dan China. Sebanyak 80% dari total impor berasal dari Amerika Serikat. Maka kenaikan harga kedelai Amerika, imbas tingginya permintaan dari China, berpengaruh sangat besar terhadap harga tahu tempe di Indonesia.

Kondisi ini suka tidak suka, memberi dua pilihan kepada perajin tahu tempe; menaikkan harga jual di pasaran, atau mengehentikan operasi. Opsi kedua jelas bukan pilihan yang baik di tengah pandemi seperti ini. Opsi pertama juga mengakibatkan permintaan akan menurun.

Mengapa Indonesia begitu bergantung pada impor kedelai?

Jawabannya sederhana, produksi dalam negeri tidak mampu memenuhi kebutuhan konsumsi. Mari kita lihat Analisis Outlook Pangan Kementerian Perdagangan tahun 2015-2019. Kajian itu menyebutkan produksi kedelai Indonesia terus menurun rata-rata 1,49 % per tahun. Sementara, konsumsi dalam negeri (domestic consumption) terus meningkat rata-rata 1,73 % per tahun.

Peningkatan konsumsi dalam negeri menyebabkan peningkatan impor rata-rata 3,57% per tahun. Meningkatnya konsumsi yang tidak disertai dengan peningkatan produksi menyebabkan stok yang ada akan habis digunakan untuk mencukupi kebutuhan.

Kajian itu juga menyebut cadangan akhir tahun (ending stock) kedelai nasional relative kecil, yaitu kurang dari 2% terhadap total pasokan, volumenya pun terus menurun rata-rata 4,25% per tahun. Kondisi ini mencerminkan makin rentannya Indonesia terhadap krisis kelangkaan kedelai yang menyebabkan harga dalam negeri meningkat tajam, seperti yang sering terjadi selama ini.

Direktur Jenderal Tanaman Pangan Kementerian Pertanian, Suwandi dalam Rapat Dengar Pendapat (RDP) dengan Komisi IV DPR RI Januari lalu menjelaskan, salah satu penyebab menurunnya produksi kedelai dalam negeri yakni keuntungan petani jika tanam kedelai hanya 1 juta/hektar. Pun harus menunggu masa tanam selama 3 bulan. Berbeda dengan keuntungan petani jika tanam jagung dan padi sekitar 4,5 juta/hektar.

Jika tidak ada terobosan di bidang produksi kedelai dalam negeri, maka impor kedelai akan terus meningkat. Produsen tempe dan tahu akan sulit bertahan jika harga kedelai impor juga terus meroket.


Ona Mariani

14 Komentar

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